Highlighting reproducibility & Comparison vs Flodex



  1. Introduction


  1. Theoretical Framework


Granular materials and fine powders are widely used in industrial applications. To control and to optimize processing methods, these materials have to be precisely characterized. The characterization methods are related either to the properties of the grains (granulometry, morphology, chemical composition, …) and to the behaviour of the bulk powder (flowability, density, blend stability, electrostatic properties, …). However, concerning the physical behaviour of bulk powder, most of the techniques used in R&D or quality control laboratories are based on old measurement techniques. During the last decade, we have updated these techniques to meet the present requirements of R&D laboratories and production departments. In particular, the measurement processes have been automatized and rigorous initialization methods have been developed to obtain reproducible and interpretable results. Moreover, the use of image analysis techniques improves the measurements precision.


A range of measurement methods has been developed to cover all the needs of industries processing powders and granular materials. However, in this application note, we will be focused on the GranuFlow instrument.


  1. GranuFlow


GranuFlow is an improved laboratory silo compared to the ancient Hall Flow Meter (ASTM B213, ISO4490) and compared to the “Flow Through An Orifice” method described in the Pharmacopeia (USP1174).

与古老的霍尔流量计(ASTM B213, ISO4490) 或者与药典(USP1174)中描述的“通过孔口的流动”方法相比,GranuFlow是一个先进的流速计。

GranuFlow is a straightforward powder flowability measurement device composed of a silo with different apertures associated with a dedicated electronic balance to measure the flowrate. This flowrate is computed automatically from the slope of the mass temporal evolution measured with the balance. The aperture size is modified quickly and easily with an original rotating system. The measurement and the result analysis are assisted by software. The flowrate is measured for a set of aperture sizes to obtain a flow curve. Finally, the whole flow curve is fitted with the well-known Beverloo theoretical model to obtain a flowability index (Cb, related to the powder flowability) and the minimum aperture size to obtain a flow (Dmin) (for theoretical background, user can refer to Appendix 1). The whole measurement is performed easily, fastly and precisely.


In this paper, we used a complete set of hole diameters: 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14mm and 16mm.


The main purpose of this application note is to provide information about the measurements reproducibility with the GranuFlow and to show some examples about what is it able to offer. In a second part, a comparison between Hall Flowmeter and GranuFlow is presented in order to show the advantage of using GranuFlow.



  1. Experimental setup


  1. Material


The product FlowLac 100 provided by Meggle Pharma is used in this application note. It is produced by spray-drying a suspension of fine milled alpha-lactose monohydrate crystals in a solution of lactose. When lactose in solution is spray-dried, a rapid removal of water is taking place, whereby amorphous, non-crystalline lactose is formed in addition to crystalline lactose.

Meggle Pharma提供的产品FlowLac 100用于本案例。它是通过喷雾干燥悬浮液的精细研磨阿尔法乳糖一水晶体在乳糖的解决方案。当溶液中的乳糖被喷雾干燥时,水的快速去除就发生了,因此除了结晶乳糖外,无定形的、非晶状的乳糖也形成了。

Due to the spray-drying process, this powder has a spherical shape, consisting of small alphalactose monohydrate crystals bound by amorphous lactose.


Figure 1: FlowLac 100, SEM Picture and particle size distribution (manufacturer data).

1:FlowLac 100, SEM图片和粒度分布(生产商数据)

  1. Experimental protocol


  1. GranuFlow


GranuFlow analysis were performed at 20.6°C and 34.6%RH. Mass Flowrate was investigated for different hole size (from 4mm to 16mm). Measurements were repeated three times

20.634.6%RH下使用GranuFlow分析。研究了不同孔径(4mm ~ 16mm)下的质量流量。测量重复三次

F is the powder flowrate (in g/s) and Cb the Beverloo parameter (in g/cm3). Dmin is the minimum aperture size to obtain a flow (for more information about the Beverloo model, please refer to Appendix 1).

F为粉末流量(单位为g/s) CbBeverloo参数(单位为g/cm3)Dmin是获得流的小孔径大小(有关Beverloo模型的更多信息,请参见附录1)

5 min are needed to run one complete measurements (with every hole size, cleaning and with Beverloo’s Law calculation).


  1. Flodex

Flodex analysis were performed at 21.2°C and 34.3%RH. Mass flowrate was measured for the same aperture size than those used with the GranuFlow (from 4 to 16mm). Measurements were repeated two times.

21.234.3%RH下使用Flodex进行分析。在孔径尺寸相同(4 - 16mm)的情况下测量质量流量。测量重复两次。

30 min are needed to run all measurements (with every hole size, cleaning, but without plotting the Beverloo’s Law).



  1. GranuFlow versus Flodex


  1. Experimental results


The following figure allows comparison between GranuFlow and Flodex. All error bars are calculated using the standard deviation obtained for reproducibility measurements (S is the average sum of squared residuals, calculated with the experimental and Beverloo mass flowrates). The flowability of FlowLac 100 powder was investigated three times with the GranuFlow and two times with the Flodex:

下图比较了GranuFlow和Flodex。所有的误差条都是用可重现性测量得到的标准偏差来计算的(S是残差平方和的平均值,用实验和贝弗卢质量流量来计算)。对FlowLac 100粉体的流动性进行了3次GranuFlow实验和2次Flodex实验:

Figure 2: Mass flowrate versus aperture size - Comparison between GranuFlow and Flodex.

2:质量流量与孔径大小- GranuFlow对比Flodex


The first observation is related to the ease of use of the GranuFlow in comparison with Flodex. Indeed, many time is wasted to change Flodex’s disks and to clean all the workplan between two experiments. Moreover, Flodex instrument does not allow the Beverloo law determination (calculations were done after experiment using the excel software).


Regarding the average sum of squared residuals, it is possible to conclude that the Beverloo law regression is more accurate with the GranuFlow (S = 2.70g²/s²) than the Flodex instrument (S = 9.99g²/s²).

关于平均残差平方和,可以得出这样的结论: 对于贝弗卢定律计算,GranuFlow (S²= 2.70 g / S²)Flodex仪器(S²= 9.99 g / S²)更准确。

If we consider the error bars (especially with an aperture of 16mm), we can see that the reproducibility is better with GranuFlow than Flodex. This fact is explained by the complete automatic procedure for the GranuFlow, while the time measurement is achieved manually (chronometer) with the Flodex instrument.


Finally, GranuFlow and Flodex result are slightly different, some issues with the Flodex instrument may explain this fact: powder aeration/electrostatic charges during measurement and porous medium height dependency.


  1. Flodex issues


  1. Triboelectricity and powder aeration


For the Flodex experiment, the powder is used to analyse mass flowrate versus aperture size. However, despite this protocol allows to use a small powder quantity, it also leads to electrical charges build up inside the powder (cf. Figure 3). Therefore, at the end of experiment the powder mass flowrate will be erratic.


Figure 3: Beaker photography after experiments with Flodex - Highlighting the electrostatic effect.


Moreover, using the same powder will aerate it, and therefore, it will modify the powder flowing behaviour.


Powder height dependency


Contrary to the fluids, when a silo is discharged by gravity, the flow rate does not depend on the height of the granular layer. Indeed, when this value is greater than 1.2 times the diameter of the silo, the pressure at the bottom of the silo saturates due to the Janssen effect and hence, the flow rate remains constant (Mankoc et al., 2007).

与流体相反,当筒仓在重力作用下排出时,其流速并不取决于颗粒层的高度。实际上,当该值大于筒仓直径的1.2倍时,筒仓底部的压力由于Janssen效应而饱和,因此流量保持不变(Mankoc et al., 2007)

However, due to the small height of the Flodex instrument (7.5cm), the powder height dependency is still observed at the end of its tank discharge. Thus, this instrument will be only useful to have an idea about the minimum aperture for the powder to flow.


  1. Conclusions

An experiment with the GranuFlow is extremely faster than Flodex (5min with GranuFlow and 30min with Flodex).


GranuFlow allows to plot the full Beverloo mass flowrate curve, while Flodex only allow experimental data measurements.


GranuFlow provides powder flowability measurements with Beverloo Law (i.e. Cb coefficient, with an error close to 2.4%) and an estimation of the Cohesive Index with Dmin parameter (minimum diameter for the powder to flow in silo configuration).


However, Flodex provides powder flowability with a slightly worse accuracy (3.1%), and no information about the Beverloo law is given (calculation need to be carried out with excel).

但是,Flodex提供的粉末流动性准确性稍差(3.1%),而且没有给出贝弗里洛定律(Beverloo law)的信息(需要用excel进行计算)



Cascade of granular flows for characterizing segregation, G. Lumay, F. Boschin, R. Cloots, N. Vandewalle, Powder Technology 234, 32-36 (2013).

Combined effect of moisture and electrostatic charges on powder flow, A. Rescaglio, J. Schockmel, N. Vandewalle and G. Lumay, EPJ Web of Conferences 140, 13009 (2017).

Compaction dynamics of a magnetized powder, G. Lumay, S. Dorbolo and N. Vandewalle, Physical Review E 80, 041302 (2009).

Compaction of anisotropic granular materials: Experiments and simulations, G. Lumay and N. Vandewalle, Physical Review E 70, 051314 (2004).

Compaction Dynamics of Wet Granular Assemblies, J. E. Fiscina, G. Lumay, F. Ludewig and N. Vandewalle, Physical Review Letters 105, 048001 (2010).

Effect of an electric field on an intermittent granular flow, E. Mersch, G. Lumay, F. Boschini, and N. Vandewalle, Physical Review E 81, 041309 (2010).

Effect of relative air humidity on the flowability of lactose powders, G. Lumay, K. Traina, F. Boschini, V. Delaval, A. Rescaglio, R. Cloots and N. Vandewalle, Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology 35, 207-212 (2016).

Experimental Study of Granular Compaction Dynamics at Different Scales: Grain Mobility, Hexagonal Domains, and Packing Fraction, G. Lumay and N. Vandewalle, Physical Review Letters 95, 028002 (2005).

Flow abilities of powders and granular materials evidenced from dynamical tap density measurement, K. Traina, R. Cloots, S. Bontempi, G. Lumay, N. Vandewalle and F. Boschini, Powder Technology, 235, 842-852 (2013).

Flow of magnetized grains in a rotating drum, G. Lumay and N. Vandewalle, Physical Review E 82, 040301(R) (2010).

How tribo-electric charges modify powder flowability, A. Rescaglio, J. Schockmel, F. Francqui, N. Vandewalle, and G. Lumay, Annual Transactions of The Nordic Rheology Society 25, 17-21 (2016).

Influence of cohesives forces on the macroscopic properties of granular assemblies, G. Lumay, J. Fiscina, F. Ludewig and N. Vandewalle, AIP Conference Proceedings 1542, 995 (2013).

Linking compaction dynamics to the flow properties of powders, G. Lumay, N. Vandewalle, C. Bodson, L. Delattre and O. Gerasimov, Applied Physics Letters 89, 093505 (2006).

Linking flowability and granulometry of lactose powders, F. Boschini, V. Delaval, K. Traina, N. Vandewalle, and G. Lumay, International Journal of Pharmaceutics 494, 312–320 (2015).

Measuring the flowing properties of powders and grains, G. Lumay, F. Boschini, K. Traina, S. Bontempi, J.-C. Remy, R. Cloots, and N. Vandewall, Powder Technology 224, 19-27 (2012).

Motion of carbon nanotubes in a rotating drum: The dynamic angle of repose and a bed behavior diagram, S. L. Pirard, G. Lumay, N. Vandewalle, J-P. Pirard, Chemical Engineering Journal 146, 143-147 (2009).

Mullite coatings on ceramic substrates: Stabilisation of Al2O3–SiO2 suspensions for spray drying of composite granules suitable for reactive plasma spraying, A. Schrijnemakers, S. André, G. Lumay, N. Vandewalle, F. Boschini, R. Cloots and B. Vertruyen, Journal of the European Ceramic Society 29, 2169–2175 (2009).

Rheological behavior of β-Ti and NiTi powders produced by atomization for SLM production of open porous orthopedic implants, G. Yablokova, M. Speirs, J. Van Humbeeck, J.P. Kruth, J. Schrooten, R. Cloots, F. Boschini, G. Lumay, J. Luyten, Powder Technology 283, 199–209 (2015).

The flow rate of granular materials through an orifice, C. Mankoc, A. Janda, R. Arévalo, J. M. Pastor, I. Zuriguel, A. Garcimartín and D. Maza, Granular Matter 9, p407–414 (2007).

The influence of grain shape, friction and cohesion on granular compaction dynamics, N. Vandewalle, G. Lumay, O. Gerasimov and F. Ludewig, The European Physical Journal E (2007).


Appendix 1: GranuFlow theoretical background


The mass flowrate F through a circular orifice of diameter D is given by the product of the mean speed of the grains <vout>, the aperture area and the bulk density ρ. One has the general expression:


𝐹 = 𝜌 < 𝑣𝑜𝑢𝑡 >

𝜋 𝐷2 4


The Beverloo's law is based on two hypotheses:


• The flow is blocked when the orifice diameter is below a threshold Dmin.


• The grains experience a free fall before passing through the orifice, i.e. 𝑣𝑜𝑢𝑡 = √2 𝑔 𝛽 𝐷. This relation comes from the idea that the jamming mechanism is due to the formation of a semispherical arch before the orifice. If this arch has a typical size proportional to the aperture, we obtain 𝛽 = 0,5. To be more general, the parameter 𝛽 can be a free parameter.

Finally, the mass flowrate expression becomes:

颗粒自由落体,然后再通过孔,𝑣𝑜𝑢𝑡=√2𝑔𝛽𝐷。这种关系来自于这样一种观点,即堵塞机构是由于在孔口前形成半球形的拱。如果这拱具有典型的孔径大小成正比的,我们获得𝛽= 05。通常来讲,参数𝛽可以自由参数。



𝐹 =

𝜌 √2 𝛽 𝜋 4

 √𝑔 (𝐷 𝐷𝑚𝑖𝑛)2,5 = 𝐶𝑏𝑔 (𝐷 𝐷𝑚𝑖𝑛)2,5